Of the three major sectors of any economy, agriculture is the primary sector. It is prior in time and naturally enough forms the basis for the other two sectors -- manufacturing and services. Without a solid foundation provided by an efficient agricultural sector, no society can prosper. Everybody -- factory workers, quantum physicists, doctors, programmers, … Continue reading On the Distress of Indian Farmers – The Introduction
If by capitalism one means “free market exchanges and production through the use of privately owned capital”, then indeed capitalism destroys jobs -- those jobs that are made redundant by increasing the productivity of labor. Imagine an economy which only produces food, and the only input to food is labor. Further imagine that the productivity … Continue reading Does capitalism destroy jobs?
Asking "Did Britain impoverish India?" is like asking "Is water wet?" Of course, Britain impoverished India during their rule as the colonial masters of India. To extract wealth from a colony and exploit its people is the primary motivation for colonization. Expecting the colonial masters to be a benign, self-sacrificing force is delusional. Colonization is not … Continue reading Did Britain Impoverish India?
To understand the relationship between producing, consuming, saving and investment, it is useful to start with a simple story. Imagine a Robinson Crusoe economy -- just one person in it. RC's consumption is limited to what he can produce by fishing, hunting and gathering. He allocates his time either laboring or enjoying leisure. If he … Continue reading Saving and Investment
For anyone concerned about the poor and poverty, the first task is to clearly define the words "poor" and "poverty." Wealth and income are reasonable measures that usually serve in defining a poor person: one who has less than some defined minimum of wealth and/or income. But that definition is not comprehensive. What if a … Continue reading Credit-constraint — the Inability to Borrow
You can bet on this fact: that occasionally there will be natural disasters like floods, fires, and earthquakes. You can also bet on a follow-on fact: that in those places, prices of essential goods and services will go up. And finally you can bet your life on this: that popular accusations of price gouging by … Continue reading Disasters, Price Gouging, Greed, Ignorance, and Stupidity
When Nobel laureate physicist Ernest Rutherford (1871 - 1937) claimed that "Physics is the only real science. The rest are just stamp collecting" he was perhaps displaying the arrogance that comes with the territory of knowing certain fundamental truths that are denied to non-physicists. Economists too can be arrogant for similar reasons. They know something … Continue reading McCloskey on Economics, Economists and Physicists